Volume 8, Issue 21 (9-2021)                   2021, 8(21): 95-117 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Kharazmi University
Abstract:   (2715 Views)
Foucault’s discourse theory implies that man is not the origin of a discourse since he is not considered to be a creature of will and decision, but a mere "subject" whose identity, profession and position in the society are formed by different discourses and the power relations and rules of those discourses. In Edward Said’s view, Orientalism is a discourse with colonizing imperatives under the dictates of which and in accordance with its rules, power relations and colonizing purpose, orientalists present a superficial, stereotypical and distorted picture of the Orient. Edward Brown and George Nathaniel Curzon are contemporaneous orientalists who have common grounds in some important aspects of life. Hence, it is expected that both be under the influence of the dominant imperialist discourse of the Victorian age and write in line with its colonizing purpose. However, this expectation is not realized about Brown. He is diametrically opposed to Curzon and criticizes his bestial policies toward Iran. Rare orientalists like Brown, who live in the heart of the dominant discourse but are not affected by it and even go against it, pose a big challenge to the definition of Orientalism as merely a discourse. The present study is an attempt to evaluate Said’s reliance on Foucault’s discourse theory and its efficacy in his definition and analysis of Orientalism as a discourse by presenting the biographies of these two Iranologists and the reasons why they took completely different approaches to Iran in their travelogues and other writings. This evaluation shows that it is impossible to analyze the activities and writings of those orientalists like Brown, who defend Iranians' rights humanistically and benevolently, based on Foucault's discourse theory which belongs to Nietzsche's anti-humanistic tradition.
Full-Text [PDF 5390 kb]   (732 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

1. شرت، ایون (1387) فلسفه علوم اجتماعی قاره‌ای. ترجمه هادی جلیلی. تهران: نی.
2. ضیمران، محمد (1378) میشل فوکو: دانش و قدرت. تهران: هرمس.
3. Ahmad, Aijaz (2000) In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures. London & NY: Verso.
4. Amanat, Abbas (2006) "Introduction: Edward Browne and the Persian Revolution of 1905-1909." The Persian revolution of 1905-1909. E. G. Browne, Ed. Abbas Amanat. Washington, DC.
5. Amanat, Abbas (2003) "Hajji Baba of Ispahan." Encyclopædia Iranica. Ed. Ehsan Yar-Shater. Vol. XI. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 561-568. Retrieved from: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hajji-baba-of-ispahan.
6. Andreeva, Elena (2007) Russia and Iran in the Great Game: Travelogues and Orientalism. London & NY: Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9780203962206]
7. Bonakdarian, Mansour (2006) Britain and the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911, Foreign Policy, Imperialism, and Dissent, New York: Syracuse University Press.
8. Browne, Edward Granville (1893) A Year amongst the Persians. London: Adam & Charles Black.
9. Browne, Edward Granville (1918) "Hope for Persia: The New British Policy". 26 Jan. 1918. Manchester Guardian.
10. Browne, Edward Granville (1895) "Introduction," The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan. James Morier. Vol. 1. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
11. Curzon, G. N. (1895) "Introduction," Adventures of Haji Baba of Isfahn. James Morier. London & NY: Macmillan and Co.
12. Curzon, G. N. (1892) Persia and the Persian Question, London: Longmans, Green and Company.
13. Foucault, Michel (2002) The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences.London and New York: Routledge.
14. Irwin, Robert (2006) For Lust of Knowing: The Orientalists and Their Enemies, London: Allen Lane.
15. Lechte, John (1994) Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers from Structuralism to Postmodernity. London and New York: Routledge.
16. McHoul, Alec and Wendy Grace (1993) A Foucault Primer: Discourse, Power and the Subject. London and New York: Routledge.
17. Mosley, Leonard (March 16, 2019) "Lord Curzon." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica inc. Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lord-Curzon.
18. Nash, Geoffrey P. (2005) "Revisiting Pro-Muslim British Orientalists." ISIM Review 16. P. 47.
19. Olson, William (1980) "The Genesis of the Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919." Towards a Modern Iran: Studies in Thought, Politics, and Society. Eds. E. Kedourie and S. G. Haim. London: Frank Cass.
20. Ross, Christopher N. B. (2009) "Lord Curzon and E. G. Browne Confront the Persian Question." The Historical Journal 52 (2), UK: Cambridge University Press, 385-418. [DOI:10.1017/S0018246X09007511]
21. Said, Edward. W. (1978) Orientalism. London: Penguin.
22. Wright, Denis. (2004) "Great Britain VII. British Travelers to Persia." Encyclopædia Iranica. Ed. Ehsan Yar-Shater. Vol. XI. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 246-252.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.